Defense Secretary Lifted Ban on Women in Combat

“The Pentagon announced an end to the ban on women in combat, finally allowing our military to fully benefit from the talents of women who want to serve and defend our great nation. When we as a nation lift restrictions and allow people to serve based on their performance, we benefit from it. That was true when President Truman desegregated the military, allowing African-Americans to serve as equals. It was true when President Obama ended “Don’t Ask, Don’t Tell,” allowing our gay and lesbian service members to serve openly. And it is true now for women.  As a Veteran who saw combat action, I know firsthand that America’s daughters are just as capable of defending liberty as her sons.  Allowing our women in uniform to serve fully is a win for our nation. ”  — Rep. Tammy Duckworth


No Thanks for Your Service

The most remarkable moment of the last GOP debate came when Stephen Hill, a gay soldier currently in Iraq asked the candidates if they would reinstate the Don’t Ask, Don’t Tell policy. The soldier’s video question was met with boos from the audience, and not a single candidate on stage thought to thank him for his service to the country or contradict the audience members who were insulting him. Rick Santorum, who answered the question, went so far as to call the new policy that lets Hill serve openly “tragic” and that if he were to win the Presidency, he would reinstate DADT.

Read the full article at PFAW website.

Updates from OFA


On Thursday, July 28th, OFA will host a small business luncheon at the Nevada State Democratic Party from 12-2PM to talk about POTUS accomplishments.  Feel free to share this information with local small business owners.  RSVP:

Will you sign up to host an event for our August 3rd Day of Action in honor of President Obama’s birthday?  Our simple online tool makes it easy to set up an event, and we’ll provide you with all the resources you’ll need to make the day a success.  Sign up here:

To find a general upcoming event closest to you, visit:

Political Update


Obama Holds Town Hall At University Of Maryland

  • The President held a town hall at the University of Maryland on Friday to talk about the work of strengthening our economy and the importance of adopting a balanced approach to reducing the deficit. Debt ceiling negotiations are ongoing.   READ MORE.
    • TPs are below and attached.

Talking Points: The President’s Town Hall

  • The President held a town hall at the University of Maryland to talk about the work of strengthening our economy and the importance of adopting a balanced approach to reducing the deficit.
  • There’s no question our economy hasn’t recovered as fast as we’d like.  The reality is that it’s going to take a while longer.  A lot of the challenges we’re facing today – like sluggish job growth and stagnant wages – were issues long before the economic crisis struck.
  • The recession and the challenges faced by middle class families weren’t created in a day, and we can’t solve them in a day.  But we’re going in the right direction.
  • The President won’t be satisfied until every American who wants a job can find one.  That’s why he’s working unceasingly to boost job creation and economic growth so that Americans can feel confident in their futures and in their kids’ futures.
  • But in the long run, the strength of the American economy will depend on how we address our debt and deficits.
  • For a decade, America has been spending more money than it’s been taking in.  A number of initiatives were undertaken but not paid for – from engaging in two wars, to cutting taxes, to a prescription drug benefit for seniors.  Then the economic crisis struck, and President Obama enacted measures to help our economy emerge from the deepest recession since the Great Depression.
  • Regardless of how you feel about those initiatives, the reality is that they all cost money.  Now, America just has too much debt.
  • Both parties share in the blame for the decisions that created this problem, and both parties are responsible for taking the actions required to solve it.  As President Obama has said, “In 2010, Americans chose a divided government, but they didn’t choose a dysfunctional government.  This debate shouldn’t be about scoring political points, but about doing what’s right for everyone in our country.”
  • President Obama knows that this is a one of a kind opportunity to do something bold to solve America’s problem of debt and deficits.  He is prepared to make the tough decisions needed to get America’s finances in order, but that means taking action now.
  • If we don’t set America’s fiscal house in order, companies won’t be as likely to invest and create jobs in America.  Interest rates will go up for everyone who borrows money to purchase a home or a car or to send their children to college.  We won’t have the money we need to invest in education or clean energy or to protect critical programs like Medicare.
  • We need to take a balanced approach that calls on the wealthiest Americans and special interests to pay their share, and the President believes that the American people agree with such an approach.  We need to do away with tax breaks for millionaires and billionaires, for oil companies making record profits, for hedge fund managers paying lower taxes than teachers and fire fighters, and for corporate jet owners who receive special tax breaks that commercial airlines just don’t get.  Those tax breaks aren’t helping to grow America’s economy, and we need to end them if we want to get serious about America’s deficits.
    • Republicans in Congress, business leaders, and conservatives agree that we need to find a balanced approach that increases revenues so that we can reduce the nation’s deficit.
    • Last week, Senator Graham voiced support for generating revenue by closing tax loopholes.
      • And recently, Warren Buffet said, “there is plenty of room on the revenue side with wealthy people like me. We’ve never had it so good. I mean our tax rates have never been lower than this and we’ve had it for 10 years and it’s shown in the great disparity of wealth that’s occurred in the last decade or so.”
      • President Obama is open to making hard decisions and tough choices – now it’s time for members from both sides of the aisle to do the same.  The President has expressed a willingness to make the tough choices when it comes to entitlement reform. That is why he put together a framework to make Medicare and Medicaid more efficient and stronger in the long run without shifting the cost of care onto our seniors or people with disabilities.
        • The President also supports finding bipartisan solutions to strengthen for future generations the Social Security program.
      • President Obama has been clear about the fact that now is the time to lead, to put aside the typical Washington posturing and achieve a compromise that solves this challenge for the American people.
    • President Obama believes that now is the time to show the American people that Washington can rise above cynicism and do big things for the future of the country.
      • We can’t choose not to pay the bills that earlier Congresses racked up.  The United States doesn’t fail to pay its bills or meet its obligations.  And we aren’t going to default on our debt for the first time ever
      • If Congress doesn’t act and we default on our obligations, it will:
    • Force the government to stop, limit, or delay payments on a variety of legal obligations, including Social Security and Medicare benefits, salaries for the military, tax refunds, and interest on the national debt.
    • Cause interest rates for mortgages, car loans, and credit cards to rise.
      • Hurt families who have been saving money into their 401(k)s for their retirement or putting aside money for their children’s education.


  • The President put into motion the final pieces to end “Don’t Ask, Don’t Tell,” certifying and notifying Congress that the requirements for repeal have been met. The law will end on September 20th, 2011, lifting once and for all the ban on gays and lesbians serving openly in our armed forces. READ MORE.

Nevadans at the White House

  • About 70 Nevadans, including a half-dozen Democratic state lawmakers, went to  Washington, D.C. late last week for a set of policy and political briefings at the White House.  The Nevada contingent was invited as part of a summer series of briefings by President Barack Obama’s administration.  READ MORE.


DNC chief promises push for Hispanic votes in conference call
The Hill // Cameron Joseph

Democratic National Committee Chairwoman Debbie Wasserman Schultz (D-Fla.) promised in a Friday conference call that the Obama campaign would focus on Latinos, a rapidly growing population, in its reelection campaign. The call was to promote the DNC’s first ad of the election cycle, a Spanish-language television ad running in media markets that reach the swing states of Florida, Colorado, Nevada, New Mexico, and Virginia. “This ad buy and the fact that it’s the first one of the campaign season … sends a very strong signal of just how high a priority this community is to this administration and this president,” said Wasserman Schultz. “We know that the Hispanic community has grown across this country and our commitment is to reach voters in every nook and cranny in this country. “

Univision//Jordan Fabian

The Democratic National Committee made its first television ad-buy of the 2012 election cycle on Friday, and it’s in Spanish. The ad is designed to appeal to Latino voters in key swing states like Nevada, Florida and New Mexico and comes in response to a similar ad recently run in the same states by the conservative outside spending group Crossroads GPS.

Democrats Look To Protect Latino Vote From GOP Outreach
Talking Points Memo // Benjy Sarlin

Democrats are looking to put the kibosh on conservative outreach efforts to Latino voters before they start. The DNC’s first major ad buy of the season is a Spanish-language ad running in areas with high concentrations of Latino voters around the country. The new spot comes just two days after the Republican National Committee and Karl Rove’s Super PAC, American Crossroads, launched their own ad campaigns aimed at the key Democratic voting bloc in battleground states like Florida and Colorado…In a conference call with reporters Friday, DNC chair Debbie Wasserman-Schultz stressed that Democrats would not take Latino voters for granted. She focused her arguments on the economy and health care, saying Democrats would be aggressive in contrasting the House GOP’s plan to end guaranteed Medicare benefits with Democratic laws, like SCHIP expansion and the Affordable Care Act, that help working families secure coverage…”We have always believed and continue to believe that the Hispanic community is very important politically,” Wasserman-Schultz said. “[Obama] is going to work hard every day, as he has as president, to earn their vote again. This ad is an example where we can lay out for Hispanic voters exactly what this president has accomplished and make sure that they understand he has made their priorities his priorities.”

DNC Responds to Crossroads With Spanish-Language Ads (VIDEO)
Roll Call // Kyle Trygstad

The Democratic National Committee on Friday is launching its first TV ad of the 2012 cycle, a Spanish-language spot that comes in response to Spanish-language ads launched earlier this week by conservative political action committee Crossroads GPS. “Behind the ads that pretend to care about our children, it’s the Republicans who would end the Medicare guarantee while protecting tax cuts for the very rich,” the announcer says in the ad, according to a translation provided by the DNC. “It was the president who extended health insurance to our children, financial aid for students, and cut taxes for the middle class. We know who to trust and who we can’t. Because it’s our job to protect our families.”

DNC Joins Ad War for Hispanic Voters
WSJ // Danny Yadron

The Democratic National Committee joined the ad war for Hispanic voters Friday, with its own Spanish-language TV spot touting President Barack Obama as Hispanics’ best ally in Washington. It’s pushback against a new campaign by Crossroads GPS, a conservative advocacy group, to tell voters — in Spanish — that Mr. Obama has made the economy worse during the last 30 months. Last week, Crossroads launched an Obama attack ad featuring a woman who couldn’t sleep because she was worried about her kids’ future. It was also narrated in Spanish. The narrator in the DNC ad says, “Behind the ads that pretend to care about our children it’s the Republicans who would end the Medicare guarantee while protecting tax cuts for the very rich,” according to a DNC translation. The spot will run in Las Vegas and Reno, Nev.; Orlando, Miami and Tampa, Fla.; Albuquerque, N.M.; Denver and Washington, DC — all cities in which Crossroads is running its ad.

DNC Launches Spanish-Language TV Spot
National Journal//Sophie Quinton

The race is on to influence Hispanic views of President Obama. The Democratic National Committee on Friday announced the release of a Spanish-language television ad that pushes back against the ad ”Despertarse“ (“Wake Up”) released by Crossroads GPS, an arm of American Crossroads. The spot defending Obama’s legislative achievements is the DNC’s first buy of the 2012 election cycle. The DNC ad, called “En Quien Confiar” (“Who to Trust”), aims to “shine a light” on President Obama’s commitment to serving Hispanic voters, said DNC Chairwoman Debbie Wasserman Schultz, D-Fla.

Game on: The DNC buys Latino ads
Mario Solis-Marich//

The Spanish language ad games have begun. For the first time Spanish language Latinos are being approached politically by both major parties well over a year before the date of an election.  While it should be no surprise that both parties need Latino voters to meet their electoral goals it was yet to be seen if Latinos would continue to be ignored by the Democratic Party until six to eight weeks before the election as is usually the case or if the GOP’s only use for Latino’s would be as scapegoats as has been their trademark. The GOP and it’s conservatives allies have decided that a positive position was needed and that earlier was better than later and so they kicked off the game.

DNC up in Orlando with Spanish-language Obama ad
Orlando Sentinel (online)//Bshaw

The Democratic National Committee is going up with a Spanish-language ad praising President Barack Obama for his support of health-care programs for children and the elderly as well as education and student loan programs that benefit Hispanics. In a statement, DNC Chair Debbie Wasserman Schultz said the ad will run in Reno, Las Vegas, Tampa, Orlando, Miami, Denver, Albuquerque, and Washington, D.C. The ad comes on the heels of a Crossroads GPS commercial condemning Obama’s spending policies, a Spanish version of an ad — featuring a sleepless woman tossing and turning as a voiceover details her worry over the nation’s future — that you can see here.

Wasserman Schultz touts Obama Hispanic ad Gibson

South Florida Congresswoman Debbie Wasserman Schultz unveiled a Spanish-language TV ad on Friday designed to shore up Hispanic voter support for President Obama in Florida, Nevada, Colorado, New Mexico and Washington, DC. Polls and other signs indicate that Hispanic voters have lost enthusiasm for Obama since his election in 2008, partly because he has not brought about immigration reform. Republican-aligned groups, meanwhile, have courted Hispanic voters with their own ad campaign.

DNC’s debut TV ad for 2012 in Spanish
Wash Times // Dave Boyer

The Democratic National Committee is devoting its first television ad buy of the 2012 presidential race to a Spanish-language commercial, trying to persuade Hispanic voters in seven swing-state markets that President Obama has not failed them economically. The spot, titled “En Quien Confiar (Who to Trust),” argues that Mr. Obama promoted tax cuts for the middle class while Republicans are interested in “protecting tax cuts for the very rich.” “We know who to trust, and who we can’t. Because it’s our job to protect our families,” the ad states. DNC Chair Debbie Wasserman Schultz, Florida Democrat, said the inaugural ad reflects the importance of Hispanic voters to Democrats’ electoral success.“This ad buy and the fact that it’s the first one of the campaign season … sends a very strong signal of just how high a priority this community is to this administration and this president,” she said. “We know that the Hispanic community has grown across this country and our commitment is to reach voters in every nook and cranny in this country.”

DNC Launches Spanish-Language Ad in Battle for Hispanic Swing Voters
ABC News (The Line)//Devin Dwyer

ABC News’ Devin Dwyer (@devnidwyer) reports:  In the latest sign of the growing influence of Hispanic voters, the Democratic National Committee has launched its first TV ad of the 2012 campaign in Spanish. The 30-second spot, which will air in seven Hispanic-heavy swing states and the District of Columbia, comes in direct response to two pro-Republican Spanish-language ad campaigns rolled out in many of the same media markets earlier this week.  The Democrats’ ad opens with a reference to attacks on President Obama by one ad, from American Crossroads, the independent group with ties to Karl Rove, then fires back at Republicans for threatening to “end the Medicare guarantee” while favoring “tax cuts for the rich.”

Both parties launch Spanish-language ads in southwest states
The Hill//Alicia Cohn

The Republican and Democratic National Committees both announced new Spanish-language ads this week targeting Hispanic voters in New Mexico, Colorado and Nevada. The early ads focusing on the presidential election in battleground states with a high Latino population indicate the importance that the Hispanic vote will have in 2012.

Democrats’ first 2012 ad to air in Spanish
Yahoo News (The Ticket)//Chris Moody

The Democratic National Committee announced its first ad buy for the 2012 presidential election cycle, with a Spanish-language television spot aimed at Hispanic voters in what are traditionally swing states. Entitled “En quien confiar,” or “In whom you can trust,” the ad hits Republicans for voting on a proposal to overhaul Medicare and touts President Obama’s record of increasing spending on health care and student loans.

Democrats Court Hispanic Vote With New Ad
Talking Points Memo//Benjy Sarlin

The DNC is up with a new Spanish-language ad in several states highlighting President Obama’s record on issues related to the Latino community. The spot, which focuses on Obama policies like an expansion of SCHIP to legal immigrants, will run in Reno, Las Vegas, Tampa, Orlando, Miami, Denver, Albuquerque, and Washington, DC. It includes a dig at Republicans as well, over the House GOP’s proposal to end guaranteed Medicare benefits.

DNC hits back at Karl Rove group with new Spanish-language ad
Miami Herald (Naked Politics)//Marc Caputo

The Democratic National Committee is hitting back at a Karl Rove-founded Crossroads Spanish-language ad with its own retort. The DNC spot touches on education, and healthcare for children and elderly. It attacks Republicans for favoring tax cuts for the wealthy and it plays up middle-class tax cuts supported by Obama.

DNC Runs New Spanish-Language Ad To Counter Karl Rove’s Crossroads GPS
Huffington Post//Amanda Terkel

WASHINGTON — The Democratic National Committee is out with a new Spanish-language ad meant to reinforce the party’s appeal to Latinos and counter a similar ad running from a conservative group. The first ad buy by the DNC in the 2012 season, the spot accuses Republicans of wanting to “end the Medicare guarantee while protecting tax cuts for the very rich,” while stressing that President Obama “extended health insurance to our children,” financial aid for students and middle-class tax cuts.

Democrats counter with their own Spanish ad, praising Obama and blasting GOP
Denver Post Online//Lynn Bartels

Democrats are out with their own Spanish-language ad, which praisesPresident Obama and accuses Republicans of wanting to sacrifice Medicare to pay for tax cuts for the super wealthy. In addition to Denver, the ads will run in the following media markets: Reno, Las Vegas, Tampa, Orlando, Miami, Albuquerque, and Washington D.C., according to the Democratic National Committee. “What the country needs is the continued leadership of President Obama, who is focused like a laser on creating jobs and moving our country forward,” DNC chair Debbie Wasserman Schultz said in a statement.

DNC launches Spanish language advertisement
AP//No Byline

The Democratic National Committee is launching a Spanish language ad which will run in several markets across the country, including Florida. DNC officials say the ad will begin airing Friday in Tampa, Orlando and Miami. It will also run in several western markets and Washington, D.C. The ad, `En Quien Confiar’ is the first of a cycle of ads the DNC plans. DNC chair Debbie Wasserman Schultz says President Obama “will always be committed to the Hispanic community and fighting for their priorities.

Airwave war for Spanish language voters heats up
CNN Political Ticker//Paul Steinhauser

The Democratic National Committee says their first television ad buy this cycle is a Spanish-language commercial that defends President Barack Obama’s record. The ad, titled “En Quien Confiar,” counter attacks against Spanish-language commercials the independent GOP group American Crossroads has started running.

DNC’s first 2012 ad: “En Quien Confiar”
Politico//Alexander Burns

The Democratic National Committee is launching its first television buy of the 2012 cycle, airing a Spanish-language that defends President Barack Obama’s record in eight TV markets across the country. The spot, titled “En Quien Confiar,” pushes back on the ads American Crossroads has been running in Spanish, and begins with a line directly attacking the GOP ad campaign.

En Quien Confiar
Politico (Playbook)//Mike Allen

DNC’S FIRST AD of the cycle, “EN QUIEN CONFIAR,” a Spanish-language defending President Obama’s record, airing in eight TV markets across the country, per “Morning Score.” Pushes back on American Crossroads ads; begins with a line attacking the GOP campaign. The script, in English: “Behind the ads that pretend to care about our children, it’s the Republicans who would end the Medicare guarantee while protecting tax cuts for the very rich.” Airing in Reno, Las Vegas, Tampa, Orlando, Miami, Denver, Albuquerque and Washington D.C. – seven Latino-heavy, swing-state markets, plus the nation’s capital.

Democrats Recruit Latino Support with Spanish Video
News Taco // Sara Calderon

Not really sure what to make of this, but the Democratic National Committee has created a Spanish language video in an effort to reach out to Latinos in Reno, Las Vegas, Tampa, Orlando, Miami, Denver, Albuquerque, and Washington, D.C. The ad highlights all the great things that President Barack Obama has done for Latinos…Like I said, I’m not really sure what to make of this. On the one hand, the Obama administration has reached record levels of deportations, all the while trying to tell us that he’s for immigration reform. Then the Republicans managed to scrounge up millions of dollars to recruit Latino candidates, something I have yet to see from the Dems. Show me the money, as it were.

The NH GOP Debate … UGH!

Last night, in Manchester, New Hampshire, the major GOP presidential candidates debated for the first time and made one thing very clear:  They have no agenda but to take down President Obama.

They even nodded along when one called the Obama administration a “destructive force,” and they said nothing when another said that President has “embraced our enemies.”  Excuse me?  This is yet one more time in which a journalists  call on them out and demand them to specifically define exactly how the President has ’embraced our enemies.’  Instead, they let the claim fly without any facts or justification of proof.

Last night was a wake-up call to anyone who thinks they can sit tight while the Republicans battle each other for the nomination.  The GOP campaign to defeat Barack Obama and roll back his entire record as though it never happened in the first place.  And, if you could tolerate watching the debate, that’s the one thing on which all of the GOP’s potential candidates totally agree upon.

It was blatantly obvious, this debate pitted seven candidates against one President. Since the President won’t be speaking for himself at one of these debates until next year, our best response is to show the Republicans that when they attack Barack Obama, it only makes us fight back harder.

Fundamentally, last night’s debate was about which of their candidates would turn back the clock the farthest.

  • They came out for re-fighting the battles they lost on Wall Street reform
  • They came out advocating total defunding or absolute repeal of  “Obamacare”… with not one of them having the decency to actually call the health care law by its actual name.
  • They backed reinstating “Don’t Ask, Don’t Tell.”
  • They even talked about abolishing the Environmental Protection Agency — and allowing businesses to flourish via pollution of our environment in terms of the water we drink and the air we breath.
  • And yes, they also boasted of their plans for phasing out Social Security and Medicare.

The words “education” and “middle class” were never uttered even once.  And then there was Romney who thinks that the economic recovery have been hampered by President’s focus on passing Card Check and Cap & Trade.  Maybe he should pay just a bit more attention.  President Obama, despite his campaign promise, did absolutely nothing to push for passage of card check, and no bill that included card check passed the Congress.  Similarly, no bill containing Cap & Trade provisions passed the Congress either.  Thus, I’d really love to hear a full explanation from Mitt Romney as to exactly ‘how’ either of those non-policies, which incidentally the GOP opposes and never happened, actually managed to hamper the economic recovery.

Bachmann, who has previously declared that the minimum wage should be abolished, vehemently declared that Obama would be a one term President. Thus, they would be able to easily repeal and completely defund all facets of “Obamacare.”  And ethics challenged, and now discriminatory Newt  proclaimed that absolutely NO Muslims would be allowed to serve in his administration.

If you were watching at home, you might have thought it was a re-run from four or eight years ago.  I wonder what the history books printed 40 years from now will be saying about this era in history and whether the comparison will be with that of the McCarthy era.  What do you think?

DADT Report Available Today

Anticipating a potential vote on the repeal of “Don’t Ask, Don’t Tell” (DADT) during the lame duck session, today, the Pentagon just released its study regarding repealing DADT, a day early with an eye toward the Senate voting on it during the lame-duck session.

At 267 pages, the Pentagon’s study is a serious read. Get started. Grab your copy here (PDF).

Bottom line quote from page 3 (11th page into the file):

“Based on all we saw and heard, our assessment is that, when coupled with the prompt implementation of the recommendations we offer below, the risk of repeal of Don’t Ask, Don’t Tell to overall military effectiveness is low.  We conclude that, while a repeal of Don’t Ask, Don’t Tell will likely, in the short term, bring about some limited and isolated disruption to unit cohesion and retention, we do not believe this disruption will be widespread or long-lasting, and can be adequately addressed by the recommendations we offer below.  Longer term, with a continued and sustained commitment to core values of leadership, professionalism, and respect for all, we are convinced that the U.S. military can adjust and accommodate this change, just as it has others in history.

The results of the Service member survey reveal a widespread attitude among a solid majority of Service members that repeal of Don’t Ask, Don’t Tell will not have a negative impact on their ability to conduct their military mission.”

As we head into the Senate debate on repealing this issue keep in mind that the purpose of this report was not to ‘determine if we should or should not repeal’ this policy. The purpose of conducting this report was to determine what actions the military services might have to take subsequent to repeal of DADT.  You can expect, however, that the interpretation of the survey’s purpose will be quite different than that for the minority party in the Congress.

The reality is that there are gay men and lesbians already serving in today’s U.S. military, and most Service members recognize this.  As a U.S. Navy veteran, I can assure you that there have been gays and lesbians serving in the U.S. Military for quite some time.  I remember a time during my stint in the Navy, where I was assigned to attend a 12-week school conducted at Lowry AFB outside of Denver, Colorado.  I was billeted in an old WWII barracks that had 6 rooms on the first floor and six rooms on the second floor, with 2 ladies sharing each room. Each floor had a common shower area, 3 (or was it 4?) lavatory stalls, and several sinks.  The same was true of the barracks building next door.  Between the two barracks, my roommate and I were the only two straight ladies of the 48 ladies billeted between those two barracks, and that was in 1974.  It wasn’t a problem for us then, so why in the world would it be a problem now?

Here’s a few of the numbers discusses in the report:

  • 69% of the force recognizes that they have at some point served in a unit with a co-worker they believed to be gay or lesbian
  • 92% stated that the unit’s “ability to work together” was “very good,” “good,” or “neither good nor poor” (89% for those in Army combat arms units, and 84% for those in Marine combat arms units—all very high percentages)
  • In the late 1940s and early 1950s, our military took on the racial integration of its ranks … surveys of the military revealed opposition to racial integration of the Services at levels as high as 80–90%.  But by 1953, 95% of all African-American soldiers were serving in racially integrated units, while public buses in Montgomery, Alabama and other cities were still racially segregated.
  • Similarities occurred when the military integrated women into the force.  In 1948, women were limited to 2% of active duty personnel in each Service, with significant limitations on the roles they could perform.  Currently, women make up 14% of the force, and are permitted to serve in 92% of the occupational specialties

“The general lesson we take from these transformational experiences in history is that in matters of personnel change within the military, predictions and surveys tend to overestimate negative consequences, and underestimate the U.S. military’s ability to adapt and incorporate within its ranks the diversity that is reflective of American society at large.”